Disclaimer: This information was produced by the Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights for informational purposes only. It is not legal advice and is not intended to create an attorney-client relationship. NBCUniversal Entertainment and Lifestyle Group and the Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights do not warrant any information contained in this guide, nor do we suggest that the information in this guide be used as a basis to pursue legal advice or decision-making.
Note: This information was last updated by the Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights in 2017. It is not exhaustive. Situations or inquiries may arise that are not answered below.
For more resources to combat hate, you can call the Lawyer's Committee NO HATE HOTLINE at 1-844-9-NO-HATE.
A hate crime is generally defined as a crime against a person or property that is motivated by bias, prejudice, or hatred toward the personal, or perceived personal, characteristics of a victim, including: race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, or disability.
A hate incident is based on the same behaviors and motivations as a hate crime, but does not rise to the level of a crime. For example, you may be a victim of hate speech, which, depending on the circumstances, may not constitute a crime (and may be protected under the First Amendment), but which may constitute a hate incident.
If you think you may be a victim of a hate crime or hate incident, you should immediately take the following three steps:
Remember, you can always contact 1-844-9-NO-HATE.
Yes. There are several federal statutes that may protect you if you are the victim of a hate crime. For example, under The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA), 18 U.S.C. § 249, a person commits a hate crime if he or she “willfully causes bodily injury” or “attempts to cause bodily injury using a dangerous weapon” because of his or her perceived or actual race, color, religion, or national origin. Moreover, the HCPA protects people who have been victims of a crime based on their actual or perceived religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability if that crime affects interstate or foreign commerce or the crime occurs within federal special maritime and territorial jurisdiction.
Note: If the offense does not result in death, the statute of limitations for bringing a claim is seven years. If the offense does result in death, there is no statute of limitations for bringing a claim.
Another federal law that may protect you from a hate-related incident is 42 U.S.C. § 3631 (relating to criminal interference with the right to fair housing). Under this federal law, a person commits a crime if he or she uses or threatens to use force in order to interfere with another person’s right to fair housing based on the victim’s race, color, religion, sex, disability, familial status, or national origin.
You might also be protected under 18 U.S.C. § 245, Federally Protected Activities, if a person through force or threat of force “injures, intimidates, or interferes with” another person based on his or her race, color, religion, or national origin and because he or she was engaged in a federally protected activity (i.e., enrolling in a public school, serving as a juror, traveling across state lines, etc.).
In addition, the Damage to Religious Property, Church Arson Prevention Act, 18 U.S.C. § 247, prohibits the intentional defacement, damage, or destruction of real property because of the religious nature of the property, where the crime affects interstate or foreign commerce, or because of the race, color, or ethnic characteristics of the people associated with the property. The statute also makes it a crime to intentionally obstruct by force, or threat of force, any person in the enjoyment of that person’s free exercise of religious beliefs.
Furthermore, 18 U.S.C. § 241, the Conspiracy Against Rights, makes it unlawful for two or more persons to conspire to injure, threaten, or intimidate a person in any state, territory, or district in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured by the Constitution or federal law.
Finally, the 2016 U.S. Sentencing Guidelines §3A1.1. (Hate Crime Motivation or Vulnerable Victim) provides a sentencing enhancement if the court finds “beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant intentionally selected any victim or any property as the object of the offense” based on the victim’s race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, disability, or sexual orientation.
The HCPA protects any person who is the victim of a crime because of his or her actual or perceived:
Note: Other statutes mentioned may not cover all of the above protected categories. However, federal law pertaining to Fair Housing (42 U.S.C. § 3631) uniquely includes familial status as a protected category, but excludes sexual orientation and gender identity.
As explained below, federal law creates protections for religious property (i.e., a place of worship). Other damage to property may be criminalized under your state’s law.
Under Conspiracy Against Rights, 18 U.S.C. § 241, it is unlawful for two or more people to threaten or intimidate another person from freely exercising any right or privilege of the Constitution or laws of the United States. In addition to this, the United States Sentencing Commission Guideline creates a penalty enhancement if the person committing an offense targets any person or any property based on the victim’s race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, disability, or sexual orientation.
If someone defaces your place of worship or interferes with your religious practice, you might find protection under 18 U.S.C. § 247 (relating to damage to religious property). Under this federal law, if a person “intentionally defaces, damages, or destroys” any religious property because of the religious character of that property or because of the race, color, or ethnic characteristics of an individual associated with the religious property, or if a person intentionally prevents a person by force or threat of force from freely exercising his or her religious beliefs, then that person violates the statute. Under this law, the actions of the person defacing your place of worship must also affect interstate commerce.
You might also be protected under 18 U.S.C. § 248, which prohibits a person from intimidating or interfering with a person exercising his or her right of religious freedom at his or her place of worship. The statute also prohibits intentional damage or destruction to a place of worship.
You can contact your State Attorney General’s Office of Victims’ Services; your local District Attorney’s Victim/Witness Program; or the United States Attorney’s Office Victim/Witness Assistance Program in your district listing online. You can also contact the Department of Justice Office of the Attorney General’s Victim Notification Program at 1-202-514-2000. You can contact the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, at 1-202-514-4609. You can also contact the Stop Hate Hotline at 1-844-9-NO-HATE.
42 U.S.C. Section 1981 protects every person’s right to “make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property.” If this right is violated, then you may bring a civil lawsuit. Please note: such claims are limited by a four-year statute of limitations.
42 U.S.C. Section 1982 protects every individual’s equal right to “inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.” There is no statute of limitations barring such claims.
42 U.S.C. Section 1985 (3), Conspiracy to deprive any person or class of persons of equal protection under the law, creates civil liability on a person who attempts to deprive an individual or class of individuals of equal protection of the laws. The victim may recover damages.
42 U.S.C. Section 1986 supplements the protection set out in Section 1985. A person may bring a civil suit against a person who had knowledge of “any of the wrongs conspired to be done, and mentioned in section 1985.” The statute of limitation on this action is one year.
A person may bring a civil lawsuit under 42 U.S.C. Section 3617 against a person who coerces, threatens, or interferes with the rights prescribed in the Fair Housing Act.
42 U.S.C. Section 13981 (Violence Against Women Act of 1994) creates a civil cause of action against anyone who “commits a crime of violence motivated by gender.”
If you would like additional information or need additional help, please contact 1-844-9-NO-HATE.
A hate crime is generally defined as a crime against a person or property that is motivated by bias, prejudice, or hatred toward the personal, or perceived personal, characteristics of a victim, including: race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity. Learn more about your state’s laws and how to take action now.
Look up federal hate crime laws or find your state’s hate crime laws here